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Basic Knowledge of Water Treatment (2)

Views:87     Author:Robin     Publish Time: 2021-01-04      Origin:Site

Ⅰ. Composition of water treatment system

A typical water treatment system in the beverage industry usually consists of three parts:

1. Pretreatment.

2. Membrane separation device (RO or UF).

3. Disinfection and sterilization device (Ozone or Ultraviolet).


Ⅱ. Pretreatment equipment

1. Sand filter

Also known as "mechanical filter" or "multi-medium filter".

Composition: Mainly composed of pressure vessels and filtration materials. Quartz sand with different particle sizes is layered in the pressure vessel to form a filter base.

sand

sand after filter

2. Activated carbon filter

Composition: Activated carbon filter is composed of pressure vessel and activated carbon filter material.

Effect: Activated carbon is porous structure, has strong adsorption, can effectively remove water.

Organics, colloids and residual chlorine (<0.1mg/L) reduce coloration, remove odors, improve water taste, and protect RO membrane.

activated carbon filter

3. Water softening device

Composition: The softening device is composed of ion-exchange resin (sodium particles), pressure vessel, salt tank and regenerative cleaning control mechanism.

2RNa+Ca 2+ =R 2 Ca+2Na +2RNa+Mg2+=R2Mg+2Na+

Role: the use of resin ion exchange of metal ions in the water (calcium and magnesium ions, etc.) replacement.

4. Precision filter

Composition: it consists of a filter element (filter element with aperture ≤5 micron is recommended) and a stainless steel pressure vessel.

Filter material: stainless steel, ceramic, titanium rod, or polymer (such as PP, PTFE, etc.) for inorganic film.

Effect: The precision filter is designed to intercept possible damage to the high pressure pump and RO membrane caused by suspended particles.

5. Flocculant and scale inhibitor

Flocculant: When the content of suspended matter in the water source is high, adding a certain concentration of flocculant can further reduce the pollution index SDI. 

The mechanism is to destroy the electrical neutrality of the colloid so that it can be flocculated out.

Scale inhibitor: Appropriate amount of scale inhibitor added to the inlet of RO can inhibit the crystalline scale of minerals on the surface of reverse osmosis membrane (the liquid side with high concentration).


Ⅲ.Reverse osmosis principle

Osmosis is a physical phenomenon. The solvent on the low concentration side will permeate through the membrane into the water with high salt content, but the salt content will not permeate. In this way, the salt concentration on both sides will gradually dissolve until it is equal. However, if a pressure is applied on the salty side, the result can also be that the above mentioned osmotic pressure is called osmotic pressure. If the pressure is increased, the water will permeate in the opposite direction, leaving salt behind. Principle of reverse osmosis desalination, therefore, is in a salt water (raw water), with more pressure than natural infiltration pressure, infiltration to the opposite direction, the water molecules in raw water pressure to the other side of the membrane, into clean water, so as to achieve the aim of removing the water salt, this is the principle of reverse osmosis to remove salt.


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